[Session Chair and Presentation] The 8th Asia Pacific International Congress of Anatomists (APICA)

I am organizing the physical anthropology session for upcoming The 8th Asia Pacific International Congress of Anatomists (APICA) that will be held in Busan, Korea in October 28-31, 2018.

Session Title: Physical Anthropology
Day 2, Oct. 29, 2018;

Organizers: 
Hisashi Fujita (Niigata College of Nursing, Japan)
Dong Hoon Shin (Seoul National University, South Korea)
Myeung Ju Kim (Dankook University, South Korea)

Schedule: 
13:30-13:45 Kim Kyung Yong (Chungang university, Korea)
"mtDNA haplogroup prediction tool for fragmented DNA samples"

13:45-14:00 Dong Hoon Shin (Seoul National University, Korea)
"Arctic mummies in Salekhard of Russian Federation"

14:00-14:15 Jong Ha Hong (Seoul National University, Korea)
Parasite aDNA of Korean mummies

14:15-14:30 Hisashi Fujita (Niigata College of Nursing, Japan)
"Artificial Trepanations found in the human skulls in ancient Egyptian"

14:30-14:45 Shiori Fujisawa (Aomori Chuo Gakuin University, Japan)
"Famine and Stress Markers, with a Focus on Enamel Hypoplasia"

14:45-15:00 Hye Jin Lee (Ministry of National Defense Agency KIA Recovery & Identification, Korea)
Traumatic signs of Rakhigarhi site, India
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Abstracts:

[2] Arctic mummies in Salekhard of Russian Federation

Sergey Mikhailovich Slepchenko1, Alexander Vasilyevich Gusev2, Evgenia Olegovna Svyatova3, Jong Ha Hong4, Chang Seok Oh4, Do Sun Lim5, Dong Hoon Shin4,*

1Institute of the problems of Northern development, Tyumen Scientific Center of the Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Tyumen, Russia
2YaNAO Arctic Research Center, Archeology Department, Archeology and Ethnology Sector, Salekhard, YaNAO, Russia
3Institution of Culture of Sverdlovsk Region, Center for Protection and Use of Monuments of History and Culture of Sverdlovsk Region, Scientific and Production Center, Ekaterinburg, Urais, Russia
4Department of Anatomy/Institute of Forensic Science, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul, South Korea
5Department of Dental Hygiene, College of Health Science, Eulji University, Seongnam 13135, South Korea

Permafrost mummies have been found in 12th to 13th century graves located at the Zeleny Yar (Z-Y) burial ground (66°19'4.54"С; 67°21'13.54"В) of the arctic Western Siberia. In 2013-2016, we excavated the cemetery, locating a total of 47 burials, including several cases of mummies. Some of those mummies had been wrapped in a multi-layered birch bark cocoon. We conducted interdisciplinary examinations using various scientific techniques after the removal of cocoon. Gross anatomical and radiological examinations showed that the internal organs were well preserved inside the body cavities. Light and electron microscopy exhibited that the mummies’ histology was very similar to those of naturally mummified specimens discovered in other countries. Ancient DNA analysis showed that the Z-Y mummies’ mtDNA haplotypes belong to five different haplogroups: U5a (#34), H3ao (#53), D (#67-1), U4b1b1 (#67-2), and D4j8 (#68). By the results, we presume that the Salekhard mummies were unique combination of Western- and Eastern Siberia-specific mtDNA haplogroups. In the Western Siberia, the anthropological data are still too insufficient to comprehend the bio-cultural details of medieval people of the region. Our current study on Salekhard mummies will provide the information useful for future investigations on medieval mummies reported from the Western Siberian arctic. This research was supported by Basic Science Research Program through the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) funded by the Ministry of Education (2017R1D1A1B03030127).
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[3] Parasite aDNA of Korean mummies

Jong Ha Hong1, Min Seo3, Chang Seok Oh1,2, Dong Hoon Shin1,2,*

1Laboratory of Bioanthropology, Paleopathology and History of Diseases, Department of Anatomy, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul, South Korea
2Institute of Forensic Science, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul, South Korea
3Department of Parasitology, Dankook University College of Medicine, Cheonan, South Korea

The parasitological information obtained from archaeological specimens can propose speculation about the parasite-infection patterns that prevailed in ancient societies. In archaeooparasitology, which is the study of ancient parasite species, parasite egg remnants in archaeological samples are examined by microscopic or molecular analysis. Although attempts have been made by archaeoparasitologists to detect ancient parasites in samples collected at the excavation site, as for genetic information on ancient parasite species, not many studies are currently available. Multiple parasite genes from multiple ancient feces or precipitates samples obtained from as many archaeological sites as possible were still needed for more advanced analyses.
Fortunately, over the past several years in South Korea, our paleoparasitological studies reported on ancient parasites in Korean mummies discovered in 15th- to 18th-century Joseon graves. Briefly, by microscopic examination, we found the ancient parasite eggs of Ascaris, Trichuris, Clonorchis, Paragonimus, and Metagonimus in the Joseon mummy feces. Utilizing these samples in the present study, we tried to analyze DNA sequences of multiple ancient parasites to understanding their genetic characteristics. After multiple each parasite genes (Ascaris: Cytochrome b, Cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (COX1), NADH dehydrogenase subunit 1 (NAD1), Internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1); Trichuris: 18S rRNA, ITS2; Clonorchis: COX1, ITS1; Paragonimus: COX1, ITS2; Metagonimus: 28S rRNA, COX1) in ancient samples were successfully amplified by PCR, consensus sequences determined by the alignment of the sequences of cloned PCR products. The obtained sequences of each parasite gene were highly similar to those of each Ascaris, Trichuris, Clonorchis, Paragonimus, and Metagonimus spp. reported thus far, but were genetically distinct from other parasite species.
This study shows the genetic characteristics of ancient parasites in Joseon period of Korea by comparison with those of modern parasites sequences worldwide. To improve the knowledge about parasites evolution in much detail, multiple parasites gene sequences must be obtained from the regions of much wider geo-historical scope in forthcoming studies. This work was supported by the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) grant funded by the Korea government (MSIP) (no. NRF-2016R1A2B4015669).
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[4] Artificial Trepanations found in the human skulls in ancient Egyptian

Hisashi Fujita1) and Sumiyo Tsujimura2)

1) Department of Bioanthropology, Faculty of Nursing, Niigata College of Nursing, Japan
2) The Institute for Cultural Studies of Ancient Iraq, Kokushikan University, Japan

It has long been known that ancient Egyptians have holes in their skulls, which are thought to be artificial skull trepanation. In this conference, the presenters report the details of photographs and CT images of three human skulls excavated from the QAU site in ancient Egypt. Artificial skull trepanation in ancient Egypt are made by thinly shaving the bone around the target site, thereby opening the holes in the target area without applying large forces. However, it would have been very painful to do with a living person, so it is likely that the patient had been anesthetized at that time. Here, we also present 3D images of CT scans and present future possibilities of studies of artificial skull trepanation in ancient Egyptians and  the other human trepanations all over the world.
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[5] Famine and Stress Markers, with a Focus on Enamel Hypoplasia

Shiori FUJISAWA 1

1 Faculty of Nursing, Aomori Chuo Gakuin University, Aomori, Japan

“Enamel hypoplasia” refers to hypoplasia occurring in the enamel of tooth crowns during their processes of growth. The period of growth for the crowns of permanent teeth is from age 0 to age 6 (for third molars it is from age 9 to 12), and if enamel hypoplasia occurs during this period, the tooth crowns will not be healed or recover even during subsequent growth. Although there are several different possible causes of enamel hypoplasia, regardless of its origin this condition has been shown by epidemiological research to be able to serve as a scale for effectively measuring the health of people in a specific group. By making detailed observations of this abnormality as a stress marker, research is being performed on its rate of occurrence depending on differences in livelihood, such as between hunting/gathering and farming, and depending on differences in social classes, as well as on the trends of weaning periods according to the group-wide ages of people in which it has appeared and the eras of its appearance.
In this research project, out of 67 human skeletal remains from the early modern age, excavated from 4 archaeological sites in Aomori prefecture located at the northern tip of Japan’s Honshu island, observation studies were performed on 40 bodies with the crowns of their permanent teeth still intact. The results showed that if only the appearance of enamel hypoplasia was considered while disregarding its severity, it was found in nearly 70% of the examined remains. This is a level far higher than in any other group of human remains from any time period or region in Japan, and is a rate of appearance comparable to those seen in severely malnourished population groups located in present-day developing countries. The location of the study is known to have had a particularly harsh environment among Japan’s regional farming areas, with records of a great many villagers starving to death during famines caused by poor harvests which occurred frequently during the early modern era. The people who managed to survive in these types of conditions suffered lasting physical damage from the recurring environmental hardships, and it is believed from the viewpoint of a paleopathological paradox that such traces were left in the bones and teeth of those people.
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[6] Caries, antemortem tooth loss and tooth wear observed in indigenous peoples and Russian settlers of 16th to 19th century West Siberia

Hyejin Lee1,2, Jong Ha Hong1, Yeonwoo Hong3, Dong Hoon Shin1,* , Sergey Slepchenko4,*

1Bioanthropology and Paleopathology Lab, Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Institute of  Forensic Science, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul 03080, South Korea
2Ministry of National Defense Agency of KIA Recovery & Identification, Seoul 06984, South Korea
3Department of Cultural Heritage Conservation Science, Kongju National University, Kongju 32588, South Korea
4Tyumen Scientific Center of the Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Tyumen, Russia

There are many previous studies where higher prevalence of dental caries is associated with the shift from hunter-gatherer subsistence to agriculture. We corroborated this conjecture by means of a study on caries prevalence among 16th to 19th century hunter-gatherers and agriculturalists who co-existed in West Siberia. Indigenous people’s skeletons (n = 75) exhumed from Tatar, Selkup, Khant, and Nenet graves were examined. Russian settler skeletons (n = 79) from Izyuk were also examined. The prevalences of caries and antemortem tooth loss (AMTL), tooth wear were compared between indigenous peoples and Russian settlers. The resulting statistical inferences were tested using package R.
The agriculturalist Russian settlers showed a significantly higher prevalence of dental caries (11.88%) than did the non-agriculturalist indigenous Siberian people (3.85%). Among the latter, the prevalence was the lowest in the Khanty and the highest in the Tatars, suggesting that caries differently affected each sub-group of indigenous Siberian people. Correspondingly to the case of dental caries, the Russian settlers’ AMTL prevalence was also higher than that of the indigenous Siberians, regardless of age. In a study on 16th to 19th century West Siberian populations, we were able to corroborate our presumption that agriculturalists ingesting a carbohydrate-rich diet would have higher rates of dental caries and AMTL than would hunter-gatherers. This work was supported by Basic Science Research Program through the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) funded by the Ministry of Education (2017R1D1A1B03030127).

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