[Session Chair and Presentation] "Recent Progress in Paleopathology of Asia" (Panel S34) in 2018 IPPA Congress


We will open our session in upcoming 2018 Indopacific Prehistory Association (IPPA) congress. We already had our paleopathology session in previous 2014 IPPA meeting (“Recent Progress in Paleopathology of Asia” session). This session is the update of our paleopathological studies in Asia Pacific region.


Reported in PPA Newsletter

(Venue: Huong Giang Hotel)

The Indopacipic Prehistory Association Congress will open on Sunday 23 September and sessions will run on Monday 24, Tuesday 25, Thursday 27 and Friday 28 September, 2018. The venue is Hue, the famous medieval capital city of Vietnam.

Organizers: Drs. Hisashi Fujita (Niigata College of Nursing, Japan) and Dong Hoon Shin (Seoul National University, South Korea)

Session Title: Recent Progress in Paleopathology of Asia


Abstract: Recently, paleopathology has been established in Asia as the indispensable research for revealing ancient people’s health and disease status by studies on the tissues remnant in archaeologically obtained biological specimens. By various scientific techniques, the secular changes in the disease patterns of Asian populations in history could be successfully traced. The obtained information thereby contributes to more comprehensive understanding of the reciprocal interaction between human beings and diseases throughout history. In this session, we will try to discuss the recent progress in paleopathological researches in Asian countries. The authors will discuss about the ancient people’s life, illness and death, from the perspectives of archaeology, anthropology, osteology, parasitology, radiology, and molecular biology etc.

PAPERS PRESENTED:

The Reconstruction of Health Status from the Excavated Skulls in Abydos site, Ancient Egypt: Hisashi Fujita, Kenichi Nomura, Shiori Fujisawa, Yumiko Oyabu, and Hiroto Adachi

The Prevalence and Persistence of Infectious Diseases in the Neolithic and 18th Century Period from Ille Cave, Northern Palawan, Philippines:
Gretchen Velarde and Tanya Uldin

Dental Health Indicators of West Siberian Native and Russian People in History: Hye Jin Lee, Jong Ha Hong, Yong Jun Kim, Dong Hoon Shin, and Sergey Slepchenko

Single Nucleotide Polymorphism Analyses on ABCC11, EDAR, FGFR2 and ABO Genotypes of ancient Korea and Siberia Mummified People:
Jong Ha Hong, Chang Seok Oh, Soong Deok Lee, Sergey Slepchenko, and Dong Hoon Shin

Regional Differences in the Frequency of Cribra Orbitalia During the Jomon Period in Japan from the Viewpoint of their Average Life Span and Eating Habits: Akiko Oba and Hisashi Fujita

Parasite Infection Patterns of Hunter-Gatherer and Agrarian Societies in History: Dong Hoon Shin, Min Seo, and Sergey Slepchenko
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Abstracts

The reconstruction of health status from the excavated skulls in Abydos site, Ancient Egypt

Hisashi Fujita1, Kenichi Nomura2, Shiori Fujisawa3, Yumiko Oyabu4, and Hiroto Adachi5

1Department of Bioanthropology, Niigata College of Nursing, Japan
2Section of Bio-Medicine, Niigata College of Nursing, Japan
3Faculty of Nursing, Aomori Chuo Gakuin University, Japan
4Doigahama site Anthropological Museum
5Department of Psychiatric Nursing, Niigata College of Nursing, Japan

Abydos, an ancient Egyptian sanctuary located on the west bank of the Nile River Midwest, and Abydos is known as the center of the Osiris faith of the netherworld, and it is the location of many temples and tombs of successive kings, including the funerary house of Seti 1, the Osirioni, and the Temple of Ramesses II, which was built in the New Kingdom era. Using skulls excavated from Abydos that are housed in the University of Cambridge, UK, the presenters performed detailed examinations for dental caries, periodontal disease, AMTL, dental attrition, LEH, CO, and Porotic hyperostosis on crania. The results showed that the nutritional status of these ancient Egyptians was better than that of developing countries of modern Africa. The results obtained from such ancient pathology are important not only for the fields of archaeology and anthropology but also for interregional health comparisons from the viewpoint of modern health science, hygiene and public health. While the welfare statistics of developing countries are not complete, information obtained from paleopathology may be utilized to create a vision of modern medicine and welfare administration. In this presentation, we comprehensively discuss the eating habits and health of ancient Egyptians from Abydos and the specific diseases that occurred in their skulls and oral cavities.
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The prevalence and persistence of infectious diseases in the Neolithic and 18th century period from Ille Cave, Northern Palawan, Philippines

Gretchen Velarde1,2 and Tanya Uldin1

1Archaeological Studies Program, University of the Philippines Diliman, Quezon City, Philippines
2Division of Social Sciences in the University of the Philippines Visayas, Miag-ao, Iloilo, Philippines

Skeletal lesions caused by various infectious diseases have long been observed, described, and recorded in archaeological contexts with their possible aetiologies continuing to occupy bioarchaeologists across the world mostly due to infectious diseases’ enduring prevalence and debilitating impact in today’s populations. In the Philippine context, this type of archaeological analysis is still very minimal and skeletal remains collected are not often subjected to investigations that aim to establish the presence of infectious diseases in the archaeological record. Hence, in this paper, the authors intend to characterize skeletal damage found in individuals recovered from Ille Cave in Northern Palawan, Philippines that are presumed to be produced by infectious diseases. Differential diagnoses aided by macroscopic scoring and microscopic observation, as well as radiological analysis revealed that there is a predominance of osteomyelitic lesions, various periosteal reactions, and possible tuberculoid lesions found in these analyzed remains. The skeletal materials subjected to this study are all from the Neolithic and Spanish Colonial Period (16th-18th century) since cultural conditions especially during the Colonial period (e.g., forced re-settlement causing increased congestion) are conducive to the emergence, dominance, and frequency of infectious diseases. There will be an additional discussion on the traditional medical practices utilized by indigenous people in the area to provide an added elucidation as to how people perceived and dealt with this type of affliction in the past and at present. The results obtained from this study can contribute to our understanding of the interplay between disease and culture and posit questions on why and how certain infectious diseases, particularly tuberculosis and leprosy are ever persistent in certain areas when they are relatively eradicated in other parts of the world.
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Dental health indicators of West Siberian native and Russian people in history

Hye Jin Lee1,2, Jong Ha Hong1, Yong Jun Kim1,3, Dong Hoon Shin*1,3, and Sergey Slepchenko*4

1Laboratory of Bioanthropology, Paleopathology and History of Diseases, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul, South Korea
2Ministry of National Defense Agency KIA Recovery & Identification, Seoul, South Korea
3Institute of Forensic Science, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul, South Korea
4Tyumen Scientific Centre of Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences
*Co-correspondences

Teeth are one of the hardest substances in the human body and have tremendous resistance to taphonomic degradation as well. Also, they can maintain natural shape and form for a long time. For this reason, teeth can reflect a wide variety of human behaviors and condition like a nutritional adequacy. The aim of this study is to assess the difference in dental health status between populations with different life style and diet. The samples investigated in this study were dental remains of 2,708 permanent teeth of 155 individuals recovered from the Western Siberia. Among them, native population (n=75) were skeletons of the Tatar (17th to 20th C, n=34), Selkup (17th to 19th C, n=22), Khant (17th to 18th C, n=7), and Nenet (19th to 20th C, n=12) peoples. Russian population (n=76) were also examined for the same West Siberia. The specimens are currently curated at the institute of the problems of Northern development center in Tyumen. To evaluate the dental health conditions of two groups, we observed various dental pathologies and the degree of teeth wear. Results showed that the overall rate of the pathological lesions were much higher in Russian sample than in Native group. In particular, prevalence of caries is significantly different between two groups (Native 1.7%, Russian 10.2%). As Russian people were agrarians and native people were hunter/gatherers, our data could support the previous concept that frequencies of caries were low in a fishing, hunting and gathering economy (0.0-5.3%) whereas an agricultural economy showed a high frequency of carious lesion (2.3-26.5%). In this study, with the Siberian skeletal series, we can re-verify the correlation between dental health status and type of subsistence in history. This research was supported by Basic Science Research Program through the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) funded by the Ministry of Education (2017R1D1A1B03030127).
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Single nucleotide polymorphism analyses on ABCC11, EDAR, FGFR2 and ABO genotypes of ancient Korea and Siberia mummified people

Jong Ha Hong1, Chang Seok Oh1,2, Soong Deok Lee2,3, Sergey Slepchenko4,* and Dong Hoon Shin1,2,*

1Laboratory of Bioanthropology, Paleopathology and History of Diseases, Department of Anatomy, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul, South Korea
2Institute of Forensic Science, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul, South Korea
3Department of Forensic Medicine, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul, South Korea
4Institute of the problems of Northern development, Tyumen; Scientific Center, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of sciences, Tyumen, Russia
*Corresponding authors

Many studies have successfully performed single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotyping of modern human samples, but there are still insufficient studies on ancient human specimens. In this report, we analyzed SNP genotypes using multiplex single-base extension (SBE) primers in polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analyses on several genes (ABCC11, EDAR, FGFR2 and ABO) of the Siberian (13th century; Russia) and Korean (16th-17th century; Joseon Dynasty) mummies. The current study shows that SNP genotyping analyses can be effectively applicable to ancient specimens from several-hundred-year-old mummy samples regardless of where they were excavated. This work was supported by the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) grant funded by the Ministry of Education (NRF-2017R1D1A1B03030127) and by Seoul National University Hospital research grant (0420170490).
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Regional differences in the frequency of Cribra Orbitalia during the Jomon period in Japan from the viewpoint of their average life span and eating habits

Akiko Oba1 and Hisashi Fujita2

1Department of Adult Health Nursing, Faculty of Nursing, Toho University, Japan
2Department of Bioanthropology, Faculty of Nursing, Niigata College of Nursing, Japan

Cribra Orbitalia (CO) is a stress marker often investigated in the field of paleopathology. Its cause has been said to be malnutrition-associated iron deficiency anemia. In this study, the authors examined the frequency of CO appearance of the human skeletal remains of total number of 196 individuals from 26 Jomon period sites from the Tohoku, Kanto, Tokai, and Chugoku regions. Ryan's multiple comparison method showed a significant difference between the “Tohoku" and “China" regions and between the "Kanto" and "China" regions, respectively. Furthermore, there was no significant difference in the appearance of CO between males and females. Evaluation of stress markers on the ancient human skeletal remains is very difficult, even experts of Paleopathology frequently make a wrong decision. From the viewpoint of food quality analysis and average life expectancy, the authors aim to clarify the cause of the high frequency of CO in Chugoku region. Present study also helps us to compare ancient and modern people in order to understand various problems and to find new perspectives not only in the fields of paleopathology but also Medicine, Nursing and in the area of varieties of medical care and welfare.
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Parasite infection patterns of hunter-gatherer and agrarian societies in history 

Dong Hoon Shin1,2*, Min Seo3, and Sergey Slepchenko4*
1Laboratory of Bioanthropology, Paleopathology and History of Diseases, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul, South Korea 
2Institute of Forensic Science, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul, South Korea 
3Department of Parasitology, Dankook University, Cheonan, South Korea 
4Tyumen Scientific Centre of Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences 
*Co-correspondences

Parasitic infections cannot be explained solely by host-pathogen interactions; but socioeconomic factors must also be considered for understanding the exact pattern of parasitism in human societies. In general, in accordance with changes in food production pattern, each society might have experienced remarkable shifts in people’s life, that must have further influenced on the parasitism. In this regard, a shift from hunter-gatherer to agrarian societies in human history looks very important because the great changes could have occurred by the beginning of sedentary agrarian life, having defined the parasitism of the two different societies (hunter-gatherer and agrarian). Despite this conjecture, it is still difficult to get clear scientific evidence as to what specific differences might have arisen in parasitic infections before and after the Neolithic Revolution. To get the answers, we compare the hunter-gatherers’ and farmers’ parasitism pattern reported in paleoparasitological studies so far, predicting what kind of changes actually occurred in parasitic infection around the initiation of agriculture in history. This work was supported by the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) grant funded by the Korea government (MSIP) (NRF-2016R1A2B4015669).
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1st Call for Abstracts

Dear Colleagues,

2018 IPPA Congress will be held on Sunday 23 September to Friday 28 September, 2018. The venue is Hue, the capital of Nguyen dynasty in Vietnamese history.

Like the IPPA congress in 2014, we hope to organize our own "paleopathology" session in the upcoming congress.

According to the organizing committee,

"program space will be limited. Scheduling priority will be given to sessions rather than individual papers. There will be four 90-minute session blocks each day, with parallel sessions running in each time-block as required. A standard single session will be 90 minutes, ending in a coffee or lunch break. Sessions may take up more than one 90 block as required, but only in whole blocks."- So, we believe that we can run one 90-minute session block for our subject, paleopathology.

To submit our application of the session before too late, we hope to know who is willing to join in this session as presenters.

If you are interested in attending this session, please send your name and affiliation to the following persons, along with the presentation title until July 31, 2017.

Dong Hoon Shin (cuteminjae@gmail.com)
Hisashi Fujita (rxh05535@nifty.com)

Warm regards,

Dong Hoon and Hisashi

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