Thursday, January 21, 2010

Paleo-Parasitological Studies


I will introduce herewith paleo-parasitological studies performed in my lab.


In general, the parasite eggs or larvae included in ancient samples were studied in two different ways: microscopic and molecular methods. Of course, simple decision like the presence of A. lumbricoides or T. trichiura could be also done in my lab. However, we need a collaborator-paleoparasitologist with higher technical skills for examining the samples in much details (e.g. finding rare parasite eggs within the samples). We already introduce Dr. Seo M., our collaborator for paleoparasitological study, in different page.


When the samples were collected in archaeological fields, they were treated for microscopic examination as follows:


1. Re-hydrated in 0.5% trisodium phosphate solution that had been periodically shaken over the course of one week.


2. The re-hydrated samples, after filtration through multiply layered gauze, were precipitated for one additional day.


3. After the upper turbid layer was discarded, the precipitates were dissolved again


4. Precipitate in solution was dropped onto the slides. They were examined by light microscope (Olympus, Japan).



Paleo-parasitological Studies in Asian Countries


China
Li J, Liao X and Yang H. Molecular Characterization of a Parasitic Tapeworm (Ligula) Based on DNA Sequences from Formalin-Fixed Specimens. 2000. 38(9-10) 309-322.


Wei D, Yang W, Huang S, Lu Y, Su T, Ma J, Hu W and Xie N. Parasitological investigation on the ancient corpse of the Western Han Dynasty unearthed from tomb No. 168 on Phoenix Hill in Jiangling county.  Journal of Huazhong University of Science and Technology. 1981. 1(2) 16-23.


Liu W-Q, Liu J, Zhang J-H, Long X-C, Lei J-H and Li Y-L. Comparison of ancient and modern Clonorchis sinensis based on ITS1 and ITS2 sequences. Acta Tropica. 2007. 101 (2) 91-94.


Sha Z-L, Zhu C-D, Murphy RW, La Salle J, Huang D-W. Mitochondrial phylogeography of a leafminer parasitoid, Diglyphus isaea (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) in China. Biological Control 38 (2006) 380–389.


Japan
Matsui A, Kanehara M, Kanehara M. Palaeoparasitology in Japan--discovery of toilet features. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz. 2003;98 Suppl 1:127-36.



Making the Map of Ancient Parasite Infection in Korea

Paleo-parasitological studies have been very rarely performed in Asian countries. Though we also started to report the paleo-parasitological findings in Korea, there is still a long way to go for elucidating the infection prevalence of various parasite species in ancient Korean population. To reach the goal, the samples from various archaeological sites in time or geographic perspectives should be examined by us. However, most of samples we have examined were from the provinces around Seoul City, which put the blocks on our efforts on getting comprehensive information about paleo-parasitology in Korea.
Starting this year, we will expand our sampling wok throughout the country of Korea; do the parasitological examinations on them; and finally make the Map of Ancient Parasite Infection in Korea by which we could check the ancient parasite egg species of certain regions and periods.
For this, we will collaborate with archaeologists in Korea and use various techniques (i.e. molecular biological technique) other than microscopic examinations for retriving much information from the samples.

This study will be performed in cooperation with Dr. Min Seo, Dept of Parasitology, Dankook University College of Medicine, Korea.

Wednesday, January 13, 2010

Multiplex SNP Assay on the Ancient Human Samples from JDHSC

We started the work on multiplex SNP assay on the samples from Joseon Dynasty Human Sample Collection (JDHSC). By the analysis of SNPs in the male-specific region of the Y-chromosome (MSY), we could get the fundamental information helpful for understanding the origin and history of Korean people which will be inferred by our forthcoming studies.

Materials:

Methods used:

References:
Bouakaze C et al. First successful assay of Y-SNP typing by SNaPshot minisequencing on ancient DNA. Int J Legal Med. 2007 Nov;121(6):493-9. Epub 2007 May 30.

Sanchez JJ, Endicott P. Developing multiplexed SNP assays with special reference to degraded DNA templates. Nat Protoc. 2006;1(3):1370-8.