Parasitism among City-Dwellers of the Past: 
the Civilizations’ Cost for a Prosperity

There were many civilizations in a history of mankind. Each civilization eager to survive under different environmental conditions. Especially as for the highly-populated area like big cities of kingdoms and empires, they always stood at the crossroad of survival. They always faced serious problems of public hygiene because many people lived in narrow districts of the cities where modern concept of . To maintain large numbers of people, they tried to develop an effective product machine for sufficient calories and nutrients. Different kinds of disasters e.g. (droughts and floods) always threatened the existence of human beings in the cities. Great civilizations always tried to overcome the challenge of mother nature; and in many cases, it was successful. However, the survival of big cities in pre-modern age was not fulfilled for free. It costs them much expense: increasing risk of parasite infection among city-dwellers in those days.
  • E2015-6. Myeung Ju Kim, Min Seo, Chang Seok Oh, Jong Yil Chai, Jinju Lee, Gab-jin Kim, Won Young Ma, Soon Jo Choi, Karl Reinhard, Adauto Araujo, Dong Hoon Shin. The paleoparasitological study on the archaeological samples from prehistoric and ancient shell‐midden sites of Korea. Quarternary International (in press)
  • E2015-11. Dong Hoon Shin, Sang-Yuck Shim, Hoon Jin Jeong, Myeung Ju Kim, Mi-Hyun Lee, Ka Young Kim, In Hak Lee, Gyongtaek Kim, Jong Yil Chai, Chang Seok Oh, Min Seo. A paleoparasitological study on the capital area of the ancient Korean Kingdom. Journal of Parasitology (in press)
  • E2014-9. Dong Hoon Shin, Sang-Yuck Shim, Myeung Ju Kim, Chang Seok Oh, Mi-Hyun Lee, Suk Bae Jung, Geon Il Lee, Jong Yil Chai, and Min Seo. V-shaped Pits in Regions of Ancient Baekje Kingdom Paleoparasitologically Confirmed as Likely Human-Waste Reservoirs. Korean Journal of Parasitology Vol. 52, No. 5: 569-573, October 2014
  • E2014-11. Myeung Ju Kim, Ho Chul Ki, Shiduck Kim, Jong Yil Chai, Min Seo, Chang Seok Oh and Dong Hoon Shin. Parasitic infection patterns as correlated with urban-rural recycling of night soils in Korea and other East Asian countries: the archaeological and historical evidence. Korean Studies 38: 51–74
  • E2013-5. Shin DH, Oh CS, Shin YM, Cho CW, Seo M. The pattern of ancient parasite egg contamination in the private residence, alley, ditch and streambed soils of old Seoul City, the capital of Joseon dynasty. International Journal of Paleopathology 3 (2013) 208–213.
  • E2013-9. Myeong-Ju Kim, Dong-Hoon Shin, Mi-Jin Song, Hye-Young Song, Min Seo. Paleoparasitological survey for the detection of helminth eggs in archaeological sites of Jeolla-do and Jeju-do. Korean Journal of Parasitology. Vol. 51, No. 4: 489-492, August 2013.
  • E2011-4. Shin DH, Oh CS, Lee SJ, Chai JY, Kim J, Lee SD, Park JB, Choi I-H, Lee HJ, Seo M. Paleo-parasitological study on the soils collected from archaeological sites in old district of Seoul City. Journal of Archaeological Science 38 (2011) 3555-3559.
  • E2010-8. Seo M, Oh CS, Chai JY, Lee SJ, Park JB, Lee BH, Park JH, Cho GH, Hong DW, Park HU, Shin DH. 2010. The influence of differential burial preservation on the recovery of parasite eggs in soil samples from Korean medieval tombs. J Parasitol. 96 (2): 366-370.
  • E2009-6. Shin DH, Oh CS, Chung T, Yi YS, Chai JY, Seo M. 2009. Detection of parasite eggs from a moat encircling the royal palace of Silla, the ancient Korean Kingdom. Journal of Archaeological Science. 36(11):2534-2539.
  • B2015-1. Seo M and Shin DH. Parasitism, cesspits and sanitation in East Asian countries prior to modernization. In: Sanitation, Latrines and Intestinal Parasites in Past Populations, edited by Piers D. Mitchell. 2015. Farnham: Ashgate    
  • K2013-1. 기호철, 배재훈, 신동훈. 조선후기 한양 도성 내 토양매개성 기생충 감염 원인에 대한 역사 문헌학적 고찰. 의사학 2013; 22: 89-132. 


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